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Sparknotes to kill a mockingbird

To Kill a Mockingbirdnovel by Harper Leepublished in Enormously popular, it was translated into some 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies worldwide.

In it won a Pulitzer Prize. Atticus is a well-known and respected lawyer. He teaches his children to be empathetic and just, always leading by example. Although Atticus presents a defense that gives a more plausible interpretation of the evidence—that Mayella was attacked by her father, Bob Ewell—Tom is convicted. He is later killed while trying to escape custody. The children, meanwhile, play out their own miniaturized drama.

Boo ultimately kills Ewell. It is widely believed that Harper Lee based the character of Atticus Finch on her father, Amasa Coleman Lee, a compassionate and dedicated lawyer.

The plot of To Kill a Mockingbird was reportedly inspired in part by his unsuccessful defense of two African American men—a father and a son—accused of murdering a white storekeeper. This rumour was not put to rest until Harper Lee began writing To Kill a Mockingbird in the mids. It was published injust before the peak of the American civil rights movement.

Initial critical responses to the novel were mixed. Some reviewers argued that the narrative voice was unconvincing. The novel was nonetheless enormously popular with contemporary audiences. To Kill a Mockingbird flourished in the racially charged environment of the United States in the early s.

In its first year it sold aboutcopies. A year after the publication of the novel, Lee was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for fiction. Since its publication inthe novel has been translated into some 40 languages and has sold more than 40 million copies worldwide. A staple on American high- school reading lists, the novel has inspired numerous stage and film adaptations, the most notable of which was the film starring Gregory Peck as Atticus Finch.

Although it was technically written before To Kill a Mockingbirdthe novel is essentially a sequel. Despite the controversy surrounding its publication some believe the novel is actually an early draft of To Kill a Mockingbirdthe novel reportedly sold 1. He is a prominent lawyer who encourages his children to be empathetic and just. At one point he faces a mob intent on lynching his client but refuses to abandon him.

Scout unwittingly diffuses the situation. Although Atticus presents a defense that gives a more plausible interpretation of the evidence—that Mayella was attacked by her father, Bob Ewell—Tom is convicted, and he is later killed while trying to escape custody. They have their own ideas about him and cannot resist the allure of trespassing on the Radley property. Their speculations thrive on the dehumanization perpetuated by their elders.

Atticus, however, reprimands them and tries to encourage a more sensitive attitude. Boo makes his presence felt indirectly through a series of benevolent acts, finally intervening when Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout.

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Lee reportedly based the character of Atticus Finch on her father, Amasa Coleman Lee, a compassionate and dedicated lawyer. The plot of To Kill a Mockingbird was inspired in part by his unsuccessful youthful defense of two African American men convicted of murder. The novel inspired numerous adaptationsthe most notable of which was the classic film starring Gregory Peck as Atticus. His Academy Award -winning performance became an enduring part of cinema history.

Other adaptations included a Broadway play that was adapted by Aaron Sorkin and debuted in To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in Alabama during the Depression, and is narrated by the main character, a little girl named Jean Louise "Scout" Finch. Her father, Atticus Finchis a lawyer with high moral standards. Scout, her brother Jem, and their friend Dill are intrigued by the local rumors about a man named Boo Radleywho lives in their neighborhood but never leaves his house.

Legend has it that he once stabbed his father in the leg with a pair of scissors, and he is made out to be a kind of monster. Dill is from Mississippi but spends his summer in Maycomb at a house near the Finch's.

The children are curious to know more about Boo, and during one summer create a mini-drama they enact daily, which tells the events of his life as they know them. Slowly, the children begin moving closer to the Radley house, which is said to be haunted.

They try leaving notes for Boo on his windowsill with a fishing pole, but are caught by Atticus, who firmly reprimands them for making fun of a sad man's life. Next, the children try sneaking over to the house at night and looking through its windows. Boo's brother, Nathan Radley, who lives in the house, thinks he hears a prowler and fires his gun.

The children run away, but Jem loses his pants in a fence. When he returns in the middle of the night to get them back, they have been neatly folded and the tear from the fence roughly sewn up. Other mysterious things happen to the Finch children. A certain tree near the Radley house has a hole in which little presents are often left for them, such as pennies, chewing gum, and soap carved figures of a little boy and girl who bear a striking resemblance to Scout and Jem.

The children don't know where these gifts are coming from, and when they go to leave a note for the mystery giver, they find that Boo's brother has plugged up the hole with cement. The next winter brings unexpected cold and snow, and Miss Maudie's house catches on fire.

sparknotes to kill a mockingbird

While Jem and Scout, shivering, watch the blaze from near the Radley house, someone puts a blanket around Scout without her realizing it. Not until she returns home and Atticus asks her where the blanket came from does she realize that Boo Radley must have put it around her while she was entranced by watching Miss Maudie, her favorite neighbor, and her burning house.

To Kill a Mockingbird Ending

Atticus decides to take on a case involving a black man named Tom Robinson who has been accused of raping a very poor white girl named Mayella Ewella member of the notorious Ewell family, who belong to the layer of Maycomb society that people refer to as "trash.

But, Atticus insists on going through with the case because his conscience could not let him do otherwise. He knows Tom is innocent, and also that he has almost no chance at being acquitted, because the white jury will never believe a black man over a white woman. Despite this, Atticus wants to reveal the truth to his fellow townspeople, expose their bigotry, and encourage them to imagine the possibility of racial equality. Because Atticus is defending a black man, Scout and Jem find themselves whispered at and taunted, and have trouble keeping their tempers.

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At a family Christmas gathering, Scout beats up her cloying relative Francis when he accuses Atticus of ruining the family name by being a "nigger-lover". Jem cuts off the tops of an old neighbor's flower bushes after she derides Atticus, and as punishment, has to read out loud to her every day.

Jem does not realize until after she dies that he is helping her break her morphine addiction. When revealing this to Jem and Scout, Atticus holds this old woman up as an example of true courage: the will to keep fighting even when you know you can't win. The time for the trial draws closer, and Atticus's sister Alexandra comes to stay with the family. She is proper and old-fashioned and wants to shape Scout into the model of the Southern feminine ideal, much to Scout's resentment.

Dill runs away from his home, where his mother and new father don't seem interested in him, and stays in Maycomb for the summer of Tom's trial. The night before the trial, Tom is moved into the county jail, and Atticus, fearing a possible lynching, stands guard outside the jail door all night. Jem is concerned about him, and the three children sneak into town to find him.

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A group of men arrive ready to cause some violence to Tom, and threaten Atticus in the process. At first Jem, Scout and Dill stand aside, but when she senses true danger, Scout runs out and begins to speak to one of the men, the father of one of her classmates in school.

Her innocence brings the crowd out of their mob mentality, and they leave.To Kill a Mockingbird. Plot Summary. Henry Lafayette Dubose Mr. Underwood Mr. Gilmer Mrs. Grace Merriweather Link Deas. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play.

Sign Up. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Sign In Sign Up. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. Download this LitChart! Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning?

Themes All Themes. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. Everything you need for every book you read. The way the content is organized and presented is seamlessly smooth, innovative, and comprehensive.

LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in To Kill a Mockingbirdwhich you can use to track the themes throughout the work. He also wears glasses and never hunts, drinks, or smokes. Despite how innocuous he seems, everyone talks about him defending Tom Robinson. She agrees with Atticus and says that mockingbirds just sing for people.

Miss Maudie points out that Atticus can write fantastic wills, play checkers, and play the mouth harp. Scout is even more embarrassed. Active Themes. Good, Evil, and Human Dignity. Related Quotes with Explanations. He warns Miss Maudie, who good-naturedly insults Atticus, and tells Scout to not point her gun at people. Annoyed, Scout asks Calpurnia what Atticus can do. Later, Scout feels even worse when Atticus is the only father not playing in the inter-church football game.

He drags Scout home and asks Calpurnia to come look at Tim. Jem mimes how Tim is moving—like his right legs are shorter than his left, twitching and gulping—and Calpurnia comes outside to look. After a minute, she rushes Jem and Scout back inside, gets Eula May to warn everyone on the street that a mad dog is coming and ask Atticus to come home.It was published in and, instantly successful in the United States, it is widely read in high schools and middle schools.

To Kill a Mockingbird has become a classic of modern American literaturewinning the Pulitzer Prize. The plot and characters are loosely based on Lee's observations of her family, her neighbors and an event that occurred near her hometown of Monroeville, Alabamainwhen she was ten.

Despite dealing with the serious issues of rape and racial inequalitythe novel is renowned for its warmth and humor. Atticus Finchthe narrator's father, has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers.

To Kill a Mockingbird

The historian Joseph Crespino explains, "In the twentieth century, To Kill a Mockingbird is probably the most widely read book dealing with race in America, and its main character, Atticus Finch, the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism. Scholars have noted that Lee also addresses issues of class, courage, compassion, and gender roles in the Deep South. The book is widely taught in schools in the United States with lessons that emphasize tolerance and decry prejudice.

InBritish librarians ranked the book ahead of the Bible as one "every adult should read before they die". Reaction to the novel varied widely upon publication. Despite the number of copies sold and its widespread use in education, literary analysis of it is sparse.

Author Mary McDonough Murphy, who collected individual impressions of To Kill a Mockingbird by several authors and public figures, calls the book "an astonishing phenomenon". Sincea play based on the novel has been performed annually in Harper Lee's hometown. Lee continued to respond to her work's impact until her death in Februaryalthough she had refused any personal publicity for herself or the novel since Born inHarper Lee grew up in the Southern town of Monroeville, Alabamawhere she became close friends with soon-to-be-famous writer Truman Capote.

She attended Huntingdon College in Montgomery —45and then studied law at the University of Alabama — While attending college, she wrote for campus literary magazines: Huntress at Huntingdon and the humor magazine Rammer Jammer at the University of Alabama.

At both colleges, she wrote short stories and other works about racial injustice, a rarely mentioned topic on such campuses at the time. Hoping to be published, Lee presented her writing in to a literary agent recommended by Capote. An editor at J. Lippincottwho bought the manuscript, advised her to quit the airline and concentrate on writing.

Donations from friends allowed her to write uninterruptedly for a year.The story covers a span of three years, during which the main characters undergo significant changes. Scout Finch lives with her brother Jem and their father Atticus in the fictitious town of Maycomb, Alabama. Maycomb is a small, close-knit town, and every family has its social station depending on where they live, who their parents are, and how long their ancestors have lived in Maycomb.

A widower, Atticus raises his children by himself, with the help of kindly neighbors and a black housekeeper named Calpurnia. Scout and Jem almost instinctively understand the complexities and machinations of their neighborhood and town.

The only neighbor who puzzles them is the mysterious Arthur Radley, nicknamed Boo, who never comes outside. When Dill, another neighbor's nephew, starts spending summers in Maycomb, the three children begin an obsessive — and sometimes perilous — quest to lure Boo outside. Scout is a tomboy who prefers the company of boys and generally solves her differences with her fists.

She tries to make sense of a world that demands that she act like a lady, a brother who criticizes her for acting like a girl, and a father who accepts her just as she is.

Scout hates school, gaining her most valuable education on her own street and from her father. Not quite midway through the story, Scout and Jem discover that their father is going to represent a black man named Tom Robinson, who is accused of raping and beating a white woman. Suddenly, Scout and Jem have to tolerate a barrage of racial slurs and insults because of Atticus' role in the trial.

During this time, Scout has a very difficult time restraining from physically fighting with other children, a tendency that gets her in trouble with her Aunt Alexandra and Uncle Jack. Even Jem, the older and more levelheaded of the two, loses his temper a time or two. After responding to a neighbor's Mrs.

Dubose verbal attack by destroying her plants, Jem is sentenced to read to her every day after school for one month. Ultimately, Scout and Jem learn a powerful lesson about bravery from this woman.

As the trial draws nearer, Aunt Alexandra comes to live with them under the guise of providing a feminine influence for Scout.

During the novel's last summer, Tom is tried and convicted even though Atticus proves that Tom could not have possibly committed the crime of which he is accused. In the process of presenting Tom's case, Atticus inadvertently insults and offends Bob Ewell, a nasty, lazy drunkard whose daughter is Tom's accuser. In spite of Tom's conviction, Ewell vows revenge on Atticus and the judge for besmirching his already tarnished name.

All three children are bewildered by the jury's decision to convict; Atticus tries to explain why the jury's decision was in many ways a foregone conclusion.

Shortly after the trial, Scout attends one of her aunt's Missionary Society meetings. Atticus interrupts the meeting to report that Tom Robinson had been killed in an escape attempt. Scout learns valuable lessons about achieving the ideal of womanhood and carrying on in the face of adversity that day.

Things slowly return to normal in Maycomb, and Scout and Jem realize that Boo Radley is no longer an all-consuming curiosity. The story appears to be winding down, but then Bob Ewell starts making good on his threats of revenge. Scout is in the Halloween pageant at school, playing the part of a ham.

After embarrassing herself on-stage, Scout elects to leave her ham costume on for the walk home with Jem. On the way home, the children hear odd noises, but convince themselves that the noises are coming from another friend who scared them on their way to school that evening. Suddenly, a scuffle occurs. Scout really can't see outside of her costume, but she hears Jem being pushed away, and she feels powerful arms squeezing her costume's chicken wire against her skin.

During this attack, Jem badly breaks his arm. Scout gets just enough of a glimpse out of her costume to see a stranger carrying Jem back to their house. The sheriff arrives at the Finch house to announce that Bob Ewell has been found dead under the tree where the children were attacked, having fallen on his own knife.In 2011, the TechAmerica Foundation presented him with the Terman Award for Corporate Leadership in recognition of his commitment to public-private partnerships, education and innovation.

McDermott holds an MBA in business management from the J. Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University and he completed the Executive Development Program at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Joanna serves B2C marketing professionals and is an industry expert on programmatic advertising. As vice president, principal analyst leading adtech coverage, Joanna explores the fast-evolving digital advertising ecosystem with a focus on helping marketers make the right organizational and technology decisions to power customer-obsessed marketing.

Specifically, she covers several core components of a modern buy-side tech stack including demand side platforms (DSPs), ad servers, dynamic creative optimization (DCO), and the like, as well as looking at the intersection of service and technology in programmatic media management.

Joanna has nearly 20 years of digital marketing experience and has been a pioneer throughout her career. Joanna joined Forrester in 2010, serving interactive marketers and covering adtech and programmatic advertising as a principal analyst. In 2013, she moved to leading trade publication AdExchanger, which further deepened her adtech expertise, and in 2015, she joined programmatic tech company MediaMath as CMO, where she led a global marketing team for two years.

He has more than a decade of leadership experience in the online advertising sector, including his tenure as CTO of Right Media (later sold to Yahoo. Brian has been an active investor in and early-stage advisor to such startups as Invite Media (acquired by Google in 2010), MediaMath, Dstillery and Solve Media.

Brian holds a B. He lives in New York City with his wife and daughter. At Forrester, Melissa serves B2C Marketing Professionals and is a leading expert on social and digital marketing strategy. As vice president and research director, Melissa leads a team of analysts who explore how marketers use evolving technologies and platforms to create and deepen the bonds between them and their ever-changing customers.

Prior to joining Time in 2007, Melissa was part of Crayon, a conversational marketing consultancy, where she managed social media projects for brands like Coca-Cola and American Airlines.

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Melissa has been quoted frequently in publications such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and Fortune magazine. She has spoken at hundreds of events around the world, including Ad Tech, Mobile World Congress, SXSW, and Social Media Week and is a frequent guest on Bloomberg Tech.

Melissa earned a B. Lou Paskalis is the Senior Vice President, Customer Engagement and Investment. In his role he is responsible for Communications Strategy, Media Investment and Measurement and Marketing Data and Marketing Technology platforms across the entire enterprise.

In his role, Paskalis oversees media strategy and investment across traditional, digital and social channels with an eye toward driving innovative solutions across lines of business. Prior to joining Bank of America, Paskalis was the Vice President of Global Media, Content Development and Mobile Marketing at American Express.

Lou began his career at E. Gallo an has been involved in advertising for nearly three decades. Paskalis is Chairman of the Board of the North American Mobile Marketing Association a board member of the Media Ratings Council.

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He serves on multiple IAB task forces and sits on Advisory Councils for Turner, Twitter and Cheddar. He is a long serving jury member of the IAB MIXX Awards and Global Effie awards.

To Kill a Mockingbird Summary

Earlier this year, Lou was listed among the sixteen most tech savvy senior executives in the marketing and advertising industry by AdWeek, which also named Lou as one of the 50 most indispensable executives in Advertising. Lou holds an MBA in finance and marketing and a B. He lives in Manhattan where he indulges his passion for bike riding, travel, fine wine and Formula One motor-racing. In May 2017, Lindsay was named Chief Transformation Officer for WPP and GroupM.

The newly created position sees Lindsay lead change initiatives across GroupM, its media agencies and specialists, and working closely with leaders across WPP to deliver the best possible communications for clients. Lindsay previously served as the Global CEO of Maxus, a position held since October 2014. She joined Maxus in October 2009 as UK CEO and in August 2012, Lindsay took on an additional role as Global Chief Strategy Officer for Maxus.

Lindsay now sits on the Chime LTD board as a non-executive director, representing WPP. Geoff Ramsey is on the cutting edge of consumer, marketing and media trends in a digital world.

Through his dynamic and high-energy keynotes, Ramsey consistently wows audiences by weaving together market data and a powerful narrative explaining the critical implications for marketers.Or does HFPA darling Lawrence sneak in.

The Globe is hers. Veteran Holly Hunter could sail through with the spoiler win. And the Globes voters could go with Armie Hammer over Stuhlbarg. If Joe Wright or Denis Villeneuve get in over Americans Gerwig or Spielberg, there could be no Americans in this category. The HFPA might want executive producer Angelina Jolie to win something. This Article is related to: Awards and tagged Golden Globes Dutch-Swedish cinematographer Hoyte van Hoytema could nab his first Oscar for instilling "Dunkirk" w.

After the Annie Awards snub on Monday, "LEGO Batman" director Chris McKay makes his best case for an. Oscar-frontrunners "Coco" and "The Breadwinner" were the big Annie nomination winners, while "The LE.

sparknotes to kill a mockingbird

Christopher Nolan's World War II actioner and Denis Villeneuve's sci-fi sequel experiment with new s. How Del Toro and his team created a romantic world shaped by water, color and movies that was the pe. Is this the year no TV movies get in the race. It may not be a movie, but it still might edge them all out. Will she crack the top five. That leaves four slots open for the taking and a lot of well-reviewed comedies looking to garner some extra positive publicity.

On the back of rave reviews, you bet he can. David Lowery and DP Andrew Droz Palermo breakdown how they shot the intimate film with a small group of friends.

sparknotes to kill a mockingbird

That's because the Army football team does not go into its 3 p. ET game at Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia with the great weight of a long losing streak hanging over its head.

The game will be televised by CBS. Army (8-3) ended its 14-game losing streak to Navy (6-5) a year ago with a 21-17 triumph, and it will try to reverse the momentum in the series by turning that victory into a two-game winning streak. Army has not had a winning streak in the series since taking five games in a row from 1992 through 1996.

The Black Knights trail 60-50-7 in the all-time series between these two service academies. These teams are mirror images of each other, as both academies run the option attack and are going to run the ball on most plays.

Army leads the nation in running with 4.

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The Black Knights also rank fourth in time of possession. Navy also uses the run as its primary weapon and has gained 3,822 yards this season. Middie quarterback Zach Abey is more likely to put the ball in the air than Army signal-caller Ahmad Bradshaw. Bradshaw threw just 39 passes this season, completing 12 of them for 259 yards with one touchdown and two interceptions. However, he ran for 1,472 yards while averaging 7.

sparknotes to kill a mockingbird

Running back Darnell Woolfolk is a key contributor for Army with 668 yards and 11 touchdowns. Kell Walker and Andy Davidson have both rushed for more than 500 yards while combining for 10 touchdowns. Abey has completed 30 of 70 passes for 803 yards, and he has seven TD passes along with seven interceptions. He is quite a force on the ground, gaining 1,322 yards while averaging 4. Malcolm Perry is a huge factor with 818 yards, an 8.

Chris High added 494 yards and two scores, while Anthony Gargiulo has rushed for 383 yards and three touchdowns. The two teams will likely take turns hammering each other with the running game, and the team that can come up with a couple of stops at the most opportune moments is likely to come away with the win.


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